Words to Know

The following words and phrases are often used in discussions about special education.

*All IDEA eligibility categories require that the disability adversely affects educational performance.

Accommodation
A change made to teaching or testing to provide a student with access to information and create an equal opportunity to demonstrate knowledge and skills. Testing accommodations can include changes in format, response, setting, timing or scheduling.

Advocate
A person skilled at assisting parents or persons with disabilities when they have need of information and support to secure appropriate educational and related services.

Assessment
The administration of specific tests, instruments, tools, strategies and other materials used in the evaluation process.

Assistive technology
device
Any item or piece of equipment that is used to increase, maintain or improve the functional abilities of individual with disabilities.

Assistive technology services
A related service that assists a student with a disability in the selection, purchase, loan or use of an assistive technology device.

Audiology services
A related service that includes the identification, determination and treatment of hearing loss.

Autism Spectrum
Disorders*
A developmental disability generally evident before age 3 that significantly affects verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction.

Behavior intervention plan
A plan of positive behavioral interventions for a child whose behaviors interfere with his or her learning or that of others.

Business day
Monday through Friday, except for federal and state holidays.

Chapter 19:
The Hawaii Department of Education rules for Student Misconduct, Discipline, School Searches and Seizures, Reporting Offenses, Police Interviews and Arrests, and Restitution for Vandalism of all students.

Chapter 34:
The Hawaii Department of Education’s rules for the protection of Educational Rights and Privacy of Students and Parents, including school records and confidentiality.

Chapter 60
The Hawaii Department of Education’s rules for special education.

Chapter 61
The Hawaii Department of Education’s rules for students with disabilities who qualify for a free appropriate public education under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973; generally these students are not eligible for special eduction but can receive accommodations or modifications in the general education classroom as part of their individualized education plan.

Child find
The statewide effort by DOE to locate and identify children and youth ages 0-22 who are suspected of having a disability and may be in need of special education services.

Complaint
A written claim that the Department of Education has violated the IDEA or Chapter 60 rights of a student with disabilities or those of his or her parents.

Consent
Parent understanding and agreement to an activity after receiving information in the parent’s native language or means of communication and with the understanding that the parent can change his or her mind.

Criteria
Guidelines or standards on which a judgement may be based.

Counseling services
A related service that includes services provided by social workers, psychologists, guidance counselors or other qualified personnel.

Deaf-Blindness*
A combination of hearing and visual impairments which causes severe communication and other developmental and educational needs.

Deafness*
A hearing impairment so severe that the child is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing, with our without amplification.

Developmental delay*
A developmental delay in a child ages 3 through 9 that includes one or more of the following areas: physical development, cognitive development, communication development, social or emotional development, or adaptive development.

Due process hearing
An administrative hearing before an impartial hearing officer to resolve a dispute between parents and the Department of Education.

Early intervention program
A program providing therapy and skill building activities to infants and toddlers (0-3 years old) who have one or more developmental delays.

Eligibility
Able to qualify for special education.

Emotional disability*
Emotional and/or behavioral problems that affect a child’s learning and which cannot be explained because of intellectual, sensory or health reasons.

Evaluation
Procedures used to determine whether a student has a disability and the nature and extent of the special education and related services the student needs.

Extended School Year (ESY)
Educational and related services provided to students during extended school breaks to help maintain critical skills and prevent regression.

Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE)
Special education and related services that are provided at no cost to the parent and individualized to meet a student’s unique learning needs.

Functional Behavioral Assessment
A problem-solving process that relies on different strategies and techniques to determine the functions of the behavior and events or conditions that trigger the behavior.

General education curriculum
The curriculum or coursework offered to students without a disability.

Hard of hearing*
A permanent or fluctuating impairment in hearing that is not included in the category of Deafness.

Identification
The process of identifying children with disabilities who need special education.

Individuals with Education Program (IEP)
The plan that addresses the unique educational needs of a child and describes the instruction and related services that will be provided, including annual goals and objectives or benchmarks.

Independent Educational Evaluation
Testing done by a qualified evaluator who does not work for the Department of Education.

Intellectual Disability*
Significantly below average general intellectual functioning along with delays in adaptive behavior.

Interim alternative educational setting
A temporary placement where a child receives educational services while being disciplined for breaking a school rule.

Interpreting services
A related service for children who are deaf or hard of hearing that includes sign language interpreting, cued speech and oral transliteration.

Mediation
An informal process conducted by an impartial mediator to settle disputes related to a child’s identification, evaluation, program or placement.

Medical services
A related service provided by a licensed physician to determine a child’s medically related disability that results in the child’s need for special education and related services.

Modification
A change in what the student is expected to learn and/or demonstrate.

Multiple disabilities*
A combination of impairments (such as intellectual disability and blindness, or intellectual disability and an orthopedic disability) which cause severe educational needs.

Objectives/benchmarks
Measurable intermediate steps between present levels of educational performance (PLEP) and the annual goals.

Occupational therapy
A related service that includes therapy to maintain and/or increase fine motor skills.

Orthopedic disability*
A severe orthopedic impairment from birth (e.g. clubfoot, absence of limbs, etc.) disease (e.g. polio, bone tuberculosis, etc.) or other causes (e.g. cerebral palsy, amputations, etc.)

Orientation and mobility services
A related service that includes services to students who are blind and/or have a visual disability to enable them to move and function safely at home, school and in the community.

Other health disability*
Limited strength, vitality or alertness due to a chronic or acute health problem such as asthma, attention deficit disorder, diabetes, epilepsy, a heart condition, hemophilia, etc.

Parent
A natural or adoptive parent, a guardian, a person acting in the place of a parent (for example, a grandparent or stepparent), a surrogate parent or a foster parent who is willing to participate in the special education process, has a long term relationship with the student, and has not conflict of interest.

Parent counseling and training
A related service that includes helping parents to gain the necessary skills that will allow them to support the carrying out of their child’s IEP.

Physical therapy
A related service that includes therapy to maintain and/or increase gross motor skills, including muscle tone and strength and range of motion of bone joints.

Placement
An appropriate educational setting for the implementation of the student’s IEP in the least restrictive environment.

Post-secondary
Life after high school (work, college, adult day program).

Present Level of
Educational Performance
(PLEP)
A statement of a student’s current level of academic achievement and functional performance and how the student’s disability affects his/her involvement and progress in the general curriculum.

Procedural safeguards
Rights given o students (and their parents) who are receiving special education and related services, or who are being identified and evaluated for eligibility for special education, to protect their confidentiality, their right to be informed, to participate, to give consent and to resolve conflicts.

Psychological services
A related service that includes giving psychological and educational tests, interpreting results, providing psychological counseling for students and parents, and assisting in developing positive behavioral intervention strategies.

Recreation
A related service that includes therapeutic recreation services, recreation programs and leisure education.

Rehabilitation counseling services
A related service that focuses on helping students with career development, preparing for employment and achieving independence.

Related services
Transportation, developmental, corrective and other supportive services required to assist a student with a disability to benefit from special education. These services do not include a medical device that is surgically implanted, or its maintenance and replacement.

Rescind
To discontinue special education or related services because the student no longer meets eligibility criteria, a parent notifies the school, in writing, they no longer wish for their child to receive special education services, or a child graduates from high school with a regular diploma.

School nurse service
A related service provided by a qualified school nurse to enable a child with a disability to receive FAPE as described in his or her IEP.

Section 504
A key section of the federal Rehabilitation Act of 1973 that prohibits school from discrimination against students on the basis of disability and requires the provision of a free appropriate public education to students whose disability affect their learning.

Sensory
Related to the five senses (smell, touch, hearing, sight and taste).

Serious bodily injury
Bodily injury that involves a risk of death, extreme physical pain, prolonged disfigurement or prolonged loss or impairment of the function of a body member, organ or mental faculty.

Settlement agreement
A written agreement that is legally binding resulting from the settlement of a due process complaint.

Special Education
Specially designed instruction, at no cost to the parents, to meet the unique needs of a student with a disability.

Specific learning disability
A disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or using spoken or written language; it may result in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell or do mathematical calculations.

Speech-language
pathology services
A related service that includes the identification and diagnosis of speech or language impairments and the provision of speech or language therapy.

Speech or language disability*
A communication disorder, such as stuttering, impaired articulation, a language disability or a voice impairment that adversely affects a child’s education performance.

Standards
Statements that describe what students are expected to know and do in each grade and subject area.

Social work services
A related service that includes group and individual counseling with the student and family and mobilizing school and community resources to meet the student’s needs.

Supplementary aids and services
Aids, services and other supports, including assistive technology devices and services that are provided in regular education classes to enable a student with a disability to be educated with students without disability to be educated with students without disabilities to the maximum extent appropriate.

Transportation
A related service that includes specialized equipment if required to provide special transportation for a child with a disability.

Traumatic brain injury
(TBI)*
An acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force that results in total or partial functional disability and/or psychosocial impairment.

Visual disability including blindness*
An impairment in vision sufficient enough to interfere with normal functioning and to require special or adapted techniques, materials and/or equipment to meet educational demands.

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